A number of conventions are used throughout this guide to indicate how to enter commands. These include:

Key Combinations

When you are to press two keys at the same time, they are written as Key1+Key2. This means that you should hold Key1 down and then press Key2.

Command Syntax

When the general syntax of a Zim command is illustrated, the command syntax uses these rules:




Typewriter-style words that are not underlined (e.g., ZOMList) are to be entered as written. This includes all punctuation marks (i.e., commas, periods, colons, parentheses, etc.) except for those noted below.


Typewriter-style words that are underlined (e.g., formname) are to be replaced with appropriate entries of the indicated type.

[ ]

Items in brackets ([ ]) are optional. The brackets themselves are not entered.
An exception is the subscript notation used in connection with variables and form fields. Array variables and repeating forms or form fields are distinguished by a number that appears in brackets. For example: RepeatingField[3]. In this case, the brackets must be entered.

|| ||

Vertical lists bounded by parallel lines ( || || ) indicate a group of possible options, at least one of which must be chosen. The lines themselves are not entered.

<< >>

Items bounded by the symbols << and >> can be repeated one or more times. Unless otherwise noted in the individual descriptions, each item in such a series is separated from the next by a space.


Items that are separated by a vertical bar (|) indicate a choice of one of the given items.


In text descriptions, all commands, keywords, and operating system utility names appear in uppercase letters (e.g., SET EXCEPTION, ZIMINIT).

Italic Items

Italic items (e.g., path) are to be replaced by entries of the appropriate type (e.g., the characters nn are to be replaced by a number).


Commas, periods, colons, parentheses, etc. are to be entered exactly as written.

Note: Zim makes no distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters in identifying command names. However, in operating systems such as UNIX, the case of operating system utilities is important. All operating system utility names should be entered in lower case.

Entering Commands and Instructions

The following table describes the methods by which commands and instructions can be entered:


Type the given information and press the Return or Enter key.


Press the given key, or key combination, once.


Press the given key, or key combination, as often as necessary to achieve the desired result.